Who is Allah? Is He Pagan in Arabic Bible & Quran?

بِسْمِ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

Allah is the Deity of Abrahamic Religions

It is mentioned in Brittanica:

“The name’s origin can be traced to the earliest Semitic writings in which the word for God was il or el, the latter being used in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). Allah is the standard Arabic word for God and is used by Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews as well as by Muslims regardless of their native tongue.”[1] “Allah – Encyclopædia Britannica”

Allah said in Quran,

And do not argue with the People of the Scripture except in a way that is best, except for those who commit injustice among them, and say, “We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you. And our God and your God is one; and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.”[2]Al-Qur’an, Surah al-‘Ankabut, Verse: 46, Tr. Sahih International

According to Bible Old Testament, Yahweh (YHWH) is Allah. It is mentioned on Arabic SVD Bible,

 وَقَالَ اللهُ ايْضا لِمُوسَى: «هَكَذَا تَقُولُ لِبَنِي اسْرَائِيلَ: يَهْوَهْ الَهُ ابَائِكُمْ الَهُ ابْرَاهِيمَ وَالَهُ اسْحَاقَ وَالَهُ يَعْقُوبَ ارْسَلَنِي الَيْكُمْ. هَذَا اسْمِي الَى الابَدِ وَهَذَا ذِكْرِي الَى دَوْرٍ فَدَوْرٍ.[3]SVD Exodus 3:15

He claimed that He is God of Arab and will destroy paganism,

“I am the Lord, that is my name. I will not allow others to receive my glory or idols to receive the praise that is due to me. Behold, former things have come to pass, and now I will declare new things; I am telling you before they happen.”
Let the wilderness and its cities sing aloud;
Let the (Arab people) villages of the Kaidarites do the same.
Let the people of Shela sing with joy,
Let them shout for joy from the mountain tops.
Let them glorify the Lord;
Let his praise be proclaimed among the distant lands.
I will make the mountains desolate and wither all their vegetation; I will make the rivers islands and dry up the ponds. I will lead the blind in paths they do not know, I will lead them in paths they do not know. Before them I will light the darkness and make the uneven place equal. All this I will do, surely. But those who trust in graven images, who say to molded images, ‘You are our gods,’ I will put them back to great shame.[4]Isaiah 42:8-9, 11-12, 15-17

So Arab people called Yahweh as Allah. God’s pronounciation in arabic Allah.

Same witnesses in Islam:

O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.[5]Al-Qur’an, Surah al-Maidah, Verse 90

O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah will never create [as much as] a fly, even if they gathered together for it [i.e., that purpose]. And if the fly should steal from them a [tiny] thing, they could not recover it from him. Weak are the pursuer and pursued.[6]Al-Qur’an, Surah al-Hajj, Verse-73

Hubal ≠ Allah

Arabic scholar and historian Patricia Crone said,

If Hubal and Allah had been one and the same deity, Hubal ought to have survived as an epithet of Allah, which he did not.[7]Patricia Crone, ‘Meccan Trade And The Rise Of Islam’, 1987, page 193-194

Rick Brown said,

…but the name of the moon god was Sin, not Allah, and he was not particularly popular in Arabia, the birthplace of Islam. The most prominent idol in Mecca was a god called Hubal, and there is no proof that he was a moon god…but there is no clear evidence that moon-worship was prominent among the Arabs in any way or that the crescent was used as the symbol of a moon god, and Allah was certainly not the moon god’s name…[8]R. Brown, “Who Is “Allah”?”, International Journal of Frontier Missions, 2006, Volume 23, No. 2, page 79-80.

Arab christian scholar Abdul Massiha said,

It is an unproven theory, so it may well be false. Even if it turns out to be true, it has little bearing on the Muslim faith since Muslims do not worship a moon god. That would be blasphemy in Islamic teachings. If we use the moon-god theory to discredit Islam, we discredit the Christian Arabic speaking churches and missions throughout the Middle East. This point should not be discounted lightly because the word Allah is found in millions of Arabic Bibles and other Arabic Christian materials. The moon-god theory confuses evangelism. When Christians approach Muslims, they do not know whether they need to convince them that they worship the wrong deity, or to present them the simple Gospel message of our Lord Jesus Christ…As far as the moon symbol on the mosques or on the flags, the simple reason behind it is that Islam depends on the moon for their religious calendar (lunar calendar) specially during the Ramadan (month of fasting). Islam forbids symbols or pictures of God.[9]“The word Allah and Islam – Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry”

Hubal (moon god) is not Allah,

…Then he [Abu Sufyan] exclaimed, ععل هبل meaning “Hubal be exalted.”

The Prophet (ﷺ) then said to the Companions, “Why do you not answer?” They said, O Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), what shall we reply? He said, “Say – الله اعلى و اجل meaning “Allah is the Most High and the Most Honored”.

Again Abu Sufyan cried out, لنا العزى ولا عزى لكم meaning “We have a reason, you don’t have a reason.” The Prophet (ﷺ) again said to the Companions, “Why do you not answer?” They said, what will I answer?

He said, Say: الله مولانا ولا مولى لكم meaning “Allah is our protector, and you have no protector.”[10]A Part of – Sahih-al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 3039

Allah said,

And of His signs are the night and day and the sun and moon. Do not prostrate to the sun or to the moon, but prostrate to Allah, who created them, if it should be Him that you worship.[11]Al-Qur’an ch. 41, Surah: Ha-Meem Sajdah/Fussilat, Verse: 37

Why muslims use sign of moon on mosque?

Ans: Franz Babinger said,

“It seems possible, though not certain, that after the conquest Mehmed took over the crescent and star as an emblem of sovereignty from the Byzantines. The half-moon alone on a blood red flag, allegedly conferred on the Janissaries by Emir Orhan, was much older, as is demonstrated by numerous references to it dating from before 1453. But since these flags lack the star, which along with the half-moon is to be found on Sassanid and Byzantine municipal coins, it may be regarded as an innovation of Mehmed. It seems certain that in the interior of Asia tribes of Turkish nomads had been using the half-moon alone as an emblem for some time past, but it is equally certain that crescent and star together are attested only for a much later period. There is good reason to believe that old Turkish and Byzantine traditions were combined in the emblem of Ottoman and, much later, present-day Republican Turkish sovereignty.”[12]‘Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time’ – Franz Babinger, Page 108

Usage of calender of moon in Christianity,

Also at your times of rejoicing—your appointed festivals and New Moon feasts—you are to sound the trumpets over your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, and they will be a memorial for you before your God. I am the Lord your God.” [13][NIV] Numbers 10:10

Same usage in Islam,

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ذَكَرَ رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ لاَ تَصُومُوا حَتَّى تَرَوُا الْهِلاَلَ، وَلاَ تُفْطِرُوا حَتَّى تَرَوْهُ، فَإِنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاقْدُرُوا لَهُ ‏”‏‏.‏

Narrated `Abdullah bin `Umar:
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) mentioned Ramadan and said, “Do not fast unless you see the crescent (of Ramadan), and do not give up fasting till you see the crescent (of Shawwal), but if the sky is overcast (if you cannot see it), then act on estimation (i.e. count Sha’ban as 30 days).[14]Sahih al-Bukhari, 1906
In-Book Reference: Book 30, Hadith 16
USC-MSA web (English) reference: Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 130 (deprecated numbering scheme).


    1 “Allah – Encyclopædia Britannica”
    2Al-Qur’an, Surah al-‘Ankabut, Verse: 46, Tr. Sahih International
    3SVD Exodus 3:15
    4Isaiah 42:8-9, 11-12, 15-17
    5Al-Qur’an, Surah al-Maidah, Verse 90
    6Al-Qur’an, Surah al-Hajj, Verse-73
    7Patricia Crone, ‘Meccan Trade And The Rise Of Islam’, 1987, page 193-194
    8R. Brown, “Who Is “Allah”?”, International Journal of Frontier Missions, 2006, Volume 23, No. 2, page 79-80.
    9“The word Allah and Islam – Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry”
    10A Part of – Sahih-al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 3039
    11Al-Qur’an ch. 41, Surah: Ha-Meem Sajdah/Fussilat, Verse: 37
    12‘Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time’ – Franz Babinger, Page 108
    13[NIV] Numbers 10:10
    14Sahih al-Bukhari, 1906
    In-Book Reference: Book 30, Hadith 16
    USC-MSA web (English) reference: Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 130 (deprecated numbering scheme).
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